Relative and absolute cell references.(Microsoft Excel)

Cell references can be relative or absolute.

Relative reference.

When auto-filling or copying and pasting formulas with cell references, the position of the cell references will be shifted one by one.

This is a relative reference, and a normal cell specification is a relative reference.

Absolute reference.

This is a method of specifying that auto-filling or copying and pasting formulas with cell references does not change the position of the cell references.
This allows you to fix the result of autofilling or copying formulas.
Absolute references are set by prefixing the reference you do not want to change with $.
You can specify rows only, columns only, or both.
A row-only or column-only $ reference is also called a compound reference.

Enter $ in the formula by keyboard input.
Or press F4 in the formula bar to toggle between both, rows only, columns only, and none.

Example of use.

We always want to use C2 cells for formulas, so we enter $ in columns and rows.

Variation of reference.

This is how the cell reference changes when you copy and paste from a yellow cell to a green cell.